since 2010 Faculty, BME and Biophysics Graduate Groups, UC Davis
since 2008 Associate Professor in Residence, Department of Pathology and Laboratory
2005-2007 Research Scientist I Faculty (equivalent of Assistant Professor), Cedars-Sinai
2005-2007 Director, Advanced Optical Imaging Laboratory, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center,
2002-2005 Research Scientist I, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA.
2000-2002 postdoctoral training, chemical physics and biophysics, Carnegie Mellon
1997-2000 PhD work in Physics (Experimental Physics) at Max-Born-Institute and
1996-1997 DAAD (Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst – German Academic
1996-1996 Research Scientist at the Institute for Atomic Physics, Laser Department, Bucharest, Romania.
1993-1996 Research Assistant at the Institute for Atomic Physics, Laser Department, Bucharest, Romania.
1992 Diplom in Physics, specialization Biophysics, Bucharest University - Romania,
RESEARCH FIELD: MOLECULAR PHOTONICS
Our research involves both the development of photon-based technologies and their applications to the biological and biomedical fields.
Technologies used in our lab:
- Time-resolved and Raman spectroscopy and imaging;
Applications:We are interested in a wide range of applications, including:
- inter- and intra-molecular dynamics;
- cellular dynamics;
- tissue diagnosis.
Biological systems are extremely complex in their organization and function, and require a multidisciplinary approach to understand their fundamentals and develop/apply new technologies for intervention. My focus is on novel optical technologies for the investigation of biological and nano-materials on micro- to nano-meter scale, as well as in the ultrafast temporal domain. My goal is to foster a collaborative research and teaching environment for solving important problems in the biological and biomedical fields. For the future, I envision my lab to be strategically equipped to approach new challenges in the biology and biomedicine.
1. Superresolution microscopy for pathology. This is a new project, started approximately one year ago, with the aim of better visualization (with higher resolution) of pathology specimens. Since the invention of the microscope the spatial resolution that could be achieved with optical microscopes was limited by the Abbe's diffraction limit. Within this law, the smallest objects that can be resolved are as small as the half the wavelength of the light, i.e., about 300nm for visible light.
In the past decade, several techniques aimed at improving the spatial resolution of optical microscopes have emerged. These techniques (called super-resolution optical microscopy techniques) utilize either patterned illumination or photo-physical processes in molecules, and can, in certain situations, resolve objects as small as tens of nanometers. This project makes use of a super-resolution microscope that is based on structured illumination for analysis of blood and other types of cells. The spatial resolution that can be achieved with this microscope is approximately 100nm, and allows for the morphological investigation of fluorescently labeled structures within cells, such as platelets, granules, and organelles.
2. Rapid tissue diagnosis with optical methods and digital coloring is another project that we started recently and is aimed at rapid tissue diagnosis in the operating room. The long time delay and discrepancies in diagnosis due to artifacts in preparation of frozen and permanent sections comes at the expense of the patient’s health and finances. To enable rapid assessment of surgical margins and biopsied specimens using this method, there is a need to use optical methods to investigate fresh tissue. Rapid fresh tissue diagnosis via fluorescent imaging offers a faster alternative with minimal artifacts. In this project we try to expand the repertoire of rapidly staining dyes that can provide good contrast and specificity in fresh tissue, as well as explore the possibility of imaging unstained tissue.
3. Label-free microscopy and spectroscopy for tissue and cellular characterization. This project is split into several subprojects.
(a) One such subproject is aimed at the development of an ultrafast optical switch for temporal separating the Raman and fluorescence signals and performing Raman measurements in the presence of the stronger fluorescence background.
This technique allows for the measurement of Raman spectra in the presence of a strong fluorescence background and opens up new potential applications of Raman spectroscopy for biological research such as (i) non-invasive characterization of the chemical composition of the endogenous fluorophores in bacteria, cells and tissues, (ii) understanding cellular processes and diseases such as cancer, vascular or neurodegenerative diseases by using natural markers, (iii) developing new probes that can be used both as fluorescence and Raman labels, (iv) noninvasive medical sensors for blood analytes such as glucose sensors for diabetes treatment. Moreover, it is likely that this technique will have a significant impact on related fields such as analytical chemistry, biomedicine, pharmacology, forensics, food safety, agriculture, biofuel research, environmental monitoring, and bio-defense.
(b) Another related subproject is compressive sensing. The goal is to improve the signal to noise ratio of fluorescence/Raman detection by a factor of at least 10, and the acquisition time by up to two orders of magnitude in spectroscopic measurements of biological and chemical samples. This will be achieved through a form of compressive spectroscopy that utilizes a digital micromirror device (DMD) and single point detector. Light dispersed from a spectrograph is imaged onto the face of a DMD. By turning individual DMD pixels on or off, the DMD can be used as an element with programmable spectral transmission. Light reflected by pixels in the on position is directed to a large-area point detector connected to a lock-in amplifier. Light from off pixels is sent to a beam dump and discarded. In this way, the measurement made on the point detector is a product between the input spectrum and the transmission curve defined by the pattern projected on the DMD. By projecting patterns such as regression vectors from multivariate algorithms such as principal components analysis and partial least squares regression, the DMD-based spectrometer performs direct measurements of projections of the spectrum onto these regression vectors. The system has a signal to noise advantage over traditional CCD-based detection systems because a large fraction of the input photons are sent to a single bucket detector, rather than being dispersed among many detector elements (pixels). Additionally, the fast response of the point detectors means that high-speed lock-in amplification can be used to further increase the signal to noise and decrease measurement times far below that allowed by CCD detectors. The device will be used to (i) understand protein function via colocalization studies by enabling spectral unmixing in fast spectral FRET measurements, (ii) help discriminate different cell types by fluorescence or Raman-based sorting, (iii) quickly monitor cell activity by rapid acquisition of principal component scores, and (iv) accurately quantify analyte concentrations in biofluids.
4. Biosensors and assays. In the past 4 years, we continued to explore the sensitivity offered by Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) for the development of label-free biosensors for direct detection of proteins and other small molecules. The technique utilizes immobilized metallic nanoparticles that are functionalized with aptamers for specific target molecules. This method is simple, selective, robust and cost-effective. We are currently in the process of determining the optimum experimental parameters (i.e., the set of experimental conditions that will yield reproducible spectra, maximum enhancement, better protein binding) for the technique, which we will then use to determine its limit of detection. Since several aptamers against small molecules, cells and viruses, are available, the application of the technique will not be limited to detection of biomolecules. The methodology can be optimized for any aptamer-analyte complex making it useful for the detection of medical biomarkers, environmental pollutants, as well as biological and chemical threat agents. In addition, the SERS substrates can be functionalized with different aptamers allowing multiplexed screening and detection. The simplicity of the developed label-free detection technique would be further utilized for on-chip and real time detection by combining with nano- and micro-scale platforms. The results obtained in the past two years on this project were published in 5 papers.
5. Point of care technologies. The goal of this project is the development of a cell phone-based platform for mobile health. NIH has recently identified global health as being one of the major opportunities in the future. This includes the development of point of care technologies that can wirelessly transmit information. We are adding microscopy and spectroscopy capability to cell phones which, combined with the ability to process data using recognition algorithms for the identification, classification and search of objects of interest, will constitute a significant step towards the use of cell phones as diagnostic devices. Cell phones are the ideal platform for this goal, since they are technologically advanced and equipped with many features that rival larger scientific devices. They are already ubiquitous devices in every day’s life in urban and remote areas, as well as in developed and underdeveloped countries. Potential applications of this device include, but are not limited to telemedicine, remote or in-the-field pathology, field biology, and education. The results obtained in the past two years were published in one paper and were highlighted in numerous media outlets such as Wired Magazine, MIT Technology Reviews, MSNBC, NPR, Good Day Sacramento, etc..
PEER REVIEWED PAPERS
1. H. Zhang, J. Luo, Y. Li, P. T. Henderson, Y. Wang, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, W. Zhao, K. S. Lam, C. X. Pan, “Characterization of high-affinity peptides and their feasability for use in nanotherapeutics targeting leukemia stem cells”, Nanomedicine, 2011 Dec. 22, ahead of print.
2. Z. J. Smith, T. R. Huser, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu*, “Raman scattering in pathology”, Analytical Cellular Pathology, 35, 2011, p.1-19 (in press).
3. K. Chu, Z.J. Smith, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, S.M. Lane, “Super-resolved spatial light interference microscopy”, JOSA A, accepted.
4. F. Knorr, D. R. Yankelevich, J. Liu, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu*, L. Marcu, “Two-photon excited fluorescence lifetime measurements through a double-clad photonic crystal fiber for tissue microendoscopy”, J. of Biophotonics, 2011, Nov.2, doi: 10.1002/jbio.201100070 (ahead of print).
5. J. Y. Hwang, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, V. K. Ramanujan, J. Ljubimova, Z. Gross, H. B. Gray, L. K. Medina-Kauwe, D. L. Farkas, “A multimode optical imaging system for preclinical applications in vivo: technology development , multiscale imaging, and chemotherapy assessment”, Mol. Imaging Biol., 2011, ahead of print.
6. Z. J. Smith, S. Strombom, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu*, “Multivariate optical computing using a digital micromirror device for fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy”, Optics Express, 2011, Vol. 19, Issue 18, pp. 16950-16962.
7. Z. J. Smith, K. Chu, A. R. Espenson, M. Rahimzadeh, A. Gryshuk, M. Molinaro, D. M. Dwyre, S. M. Lane, D. Matthews, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu*, “Cell-phone-based platform for biomedical device development and education applications”, PLoSONE, 2011, 6(3): e17150.
8. Z. J. Smith, F. Knorr, C. V. Pagba, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu*, “Rejection of fluorescence background in resonance and spontaneous Raman microspectroscopy”, Journal of Vizualized Experiments, 2011, http://www.jove.com/details.php?id=2592, doi: 10.3791/2592.
9. J. Y. Hwang, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, V. Krishnan Ramanujan, A. G. Nowatzyk, Y. Koronyo, L. K. Medina Kauwe, Z. Gross, H. B. Gray, D. L. Farkas, “Multimodal wide-field two-photon excitation imaging: characterization of the technique for in vivo applications”, Biomedical Optics Express, Vol 2, Iss.2, 2011, pp. 356-364.
10. C. V. Pagba, S. M. Lane, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu*, “Conformational changes in quadrulpex oligonucleotide structures probed by Raman spectroscopy”, Biomedical Optics Express, Vol. 2, Issue 2, 2011, pp. 207-217.
11. F. Knorr, Z. J. Smith, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu*, “Development of a time-gated system for Raman spectroscopy of biological samples”, Optics Express, Vol. 18, No. 19, 2010, pp. 20049-20058.
12. C. V. Pagba, S. M. Lane, H. Cho, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu*, “Direct detection of aptamer-thrombin binding via surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy”, J. Biomed. Opt., Vol. 15 (4), 2010, 047006.
13. C. V. Pagba, S. M. Lane, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu*, “Raman and SERS studies of the 15-mer DNA Thrombin Binding Aptamer”, Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, Vol. 41, Issue 3, 2010, pp. 241-247.
14. T. Weeks, I. Schie, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, T. Huser, “ Non-degenerate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy”, J. of Biophotonics, Vol. 3, Issue 3, 2010, pp. 169-175.
15. T. J. Moritz, J. A. Brunberg, D. M. Krol, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, S. M. Lane, J. W. Chan, “Characterization of FXTAS related isolated intranuclear protein inclusions using laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy”, Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, Vol. 41, Issue 1, 2010, pp. 33-39.
16. D. Talavera, D.C. Dafoe, T. Ng, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, C. Castillo-Henkel, D. L. Farkas, “Enhancement of embryonic stem cell differentiation promoted by avian chorioallantoic membranes”, Tissue Engineering Part A, Vol. 15, Issue 10, 2009, pp. 3193-3200.
17. T. Weeks, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, T. Huser, “Doubly-Resonant four-wave mixing (DR-FWM) microscopy with two Raman resonances”, Opt. Express, Vol. 17, Issue 19, 2009, pp. 17044-17051.
18. D. L. Thompson, F. Pearson, C. Thomas, R. Rao, D. Matthews, J. S. Albala, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu*, M. A. Coleman, “An adaptable, portable microarray reader for biodetection”, Sensors, Vol. 9, No. 4, 2009, pp. 2524-2537.
19. S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, T. Weeks, T. Huser, “Chemical analysis in vivo and in vitro Raman spectroscopy – from single cells to humans”, Curr. Opinions in Biotech., Vol. 20, 2009, pp. 63-73.
20. H. Cho, B. R. Baker, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, C. Pagba, T. A. Laurence, S. M. Lane, L. P. Lee, and J. B.-H. Tok, “Aptamer-based SERRS Sensor for Thrombin Detection”, 2008, Nanoletters, Vol. 8, No. 12, 2008, pp. 4386-4390.
21. J. Chan, S. Fore, S. Wachsman-Hogiu, and T. Huser, “Raman microscopy of individual cells and cellular components”, Laser and Photonics Reviews, Vol. 2, No. 5, 2008, pp. 325-349 (with cover). (last name misspeled).
22. N. Argov, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu*, S. L. Freeman, T. Huser, C. B. Lebrilla, and B. German, “Size -Dependent Lipid Content in Human Milk Fat Globules Characterized by Laser Trap Raman Spectroscopy”, Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, Vol. 56, No. 16, 2008, pp. 7446-7450.
23. D. Rativa, A. S. Gomes, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, D. L. Farkas, and R. E. DeAraujo, “Nonlinear excitation of tryptophan emission enhanced by silver nanoparticles”, Journal of Fluorescence, Vol. 18. No. 6, Nov. 2008, pp. 1151-1155.
24. I. W. Schie, T. Weeks, G. P. McNerney, S. Fore, J. K. Sampson, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, J. C. Rutledge, and T. Huser, “Simultaneous forward and epi-CARS microscopy with a single detector by time-correlated single photon counting”, Optics Express, Vol. 16, No. 3, Feb. 2008, pp. 2168-2175.
25. Julia Y. Ljubimova, Manabu Fujita, Natalya M. Khazenzon, Bong-Seop Lee, Sebastian Wachsmann-Hogiu, Daniel L. Farkas, Keith L. Black, Eggehard Holler, “Nanoconjugate based on polymalic acid for tumor targeting”, Chemico-Biological Interactions., Vol. 171, Issue 2, 2008, pp. 195-203, ahead of print Feb. 8, 2007.
26. J. T. Lee, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, M.C. Shaw, “Crack-tip strain fields in collagen biomaterials for skin tissue engineering”, International Journal of Materials Research, Vol. 98, Issue 12, Dec. 2007, pp. 1279-1283.
27. Hjorten Rebecca, Hansen Uwe, Underwood, Robert A., Telfer, Helena E., Fernandes, Russell J., Krakow, Deborah, Sebald, Eiman, Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian, Bruckner, Peter, Jacquet, Robin, Landis, William J., Byers, Peter H., Pace, James M., “Type XXVII collagen at the transition of cartilage to bone during skeletogenesis”, Bone, 41 (4), Oct. 2007, pp. 535-42.
28. A. J. Ghods, D. Irvin, G. Liu, X. Yuan, I. R. Abdulkadir, P. Tunici, B. Konda, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, K. L. Black, J. S. Yu, “Spheres isolated from 9L gliosarcoma rat cell line possess chemoresistant and aggressive cancer stem-like cells”, Stem Cells, 25, Apr. 5-th, 2007, pp. 1645-53.
29. J. Hu, X. Yuan, M. L. Belladona, M. Ong, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, D. L. Farkas, J. Yu, K. Black, “Induction of potent antitumor immunity by intratumoral injection of IL-23 transduced dendritic cells”, Cancer Research, 66 (17), 2006, pp. 8887-96.
30. Behrooz G. Sharifi, Zhaohui Zeng, Lai Wang, Lei Song, Haiming Chen, Minghui Qin, M. Rocio Sierra-Honigmann, Sebastian Wachsmann-Hogiu, and Prediman Krishan Shah, “Pleiotrophin Induces Transdifferentiation of Monocytes into Functional Endothelial Cells”, Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology on a DeNovo basis, 26 (6), 2006, pp. 1273-80.
31. Alex Y. Tan, Hongmei Li, Sebastian Wachsmann-Hogiu, Lan S. Chen, Peng-Sheng Chen, Michael C. Fishbein, “Autonomic Innervation and Segmental Muscular Disconnections at the Human Pulmonary Vein-Atrial Junction: Implications for Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation”, J. Am. College of Cardiology, 48 (1), 2006, 132-143.
32. Bong-Seop Lee, Manabu Fujita, Natalya Khazenzon, Sebastian Wachsmann-Hogiu, Daniel L. Farkas, Keith Black, Julia Ljubimova & Eggehard Holler, “Polycefin, a new prototype of a multifunctional nanoconjugate based on poly(b-l-malic acid) for drug delivery”, Bioconjugate chemistry, 17 (2), 2006, 317-326.
33. A. Chung, S. Karlan, E. Lindsley, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, and D. L. Farkas, “In Vivo Cytometry: A Spectrum Of Possibilities”, Cytometry, 69A, 2006, 142-146.
34. A. Chung, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, T. Zhao, Y. Xiong, A. Joseph, D. L. Farkas, “Advanced Optical Imaging Requiring No Contrast Agents--A New Armamentarium for Medicine and Surgery”, Current Surgery, Volume 62(3), 2005, pp. 365-370.
35. X. Yuan, J. Curtin, , Y. Xiong, G. Liu, S. Waschsmann-Hogiu, D. L. Farkas, K. Black, J. Yu, “Isolation of cancer stem cells from adult glioblastoma multiforme”, Oncogene, 16;23 (58), 2004, pp. 9392-9400. (last name misspeled).
36. D. Krakow, S. P. Robertson, L. M. King, T. Morgan, E. T. Sebald, C., Bertolotto, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, D. Acuna, S. S. Shapiro, T. Takafuta, S. Aftimos, C. Ae Kim, H. Firth, C. E. Steiner, V. Cormier-Daire, A. Superti-Furga, L. Bonafe, J. M. Graham Jr., A.Grix, C. A. Bacino, J. Allanson, M. S. Bialer, R.S. Lachman, D. L. Rimoin, and D. H. Cohn, “Mutations in the gene encoding filamin B disrupt vertebral segmentation, joint formation, and skeletogenesis”, Nature Genetics, Vol. 36, 2004, pp. 405-410.
37. S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, L. A. Peteanu, L. A. Liu, D. J. Yaron, J. Wildeman, “The Effects of Structural and Micro- Environmental Disorder on the Electronic Properties of MEH-PPV and Related Oligomers”, J. Phys. Chem. B, vol. 107, 2003, pp. 5133-5143
38. W. Werncke., S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, J. Dreyer, A. I. Vodchits, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast intra-molecular ET studied by picosecond and stationary Raman spectroscopy”, Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan, Vol. 75, 2002, pp. 1049-1055.
39. A. Chowdhury, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, P. R. Bangal, I. Raheem, L. A. Peteanu, “Characterization of chiral H- and J-aggregates of cyanine dyes formed by DNA templating using Stark and fluorescence spectroscopies”, J. Phys. Chem. B, 2002, Vol. 105, Nr. 48, 2001, pp. 12196-12201.
40. L. L. Premvardhan, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, L. A. Peteanu, D. Yaron, P.-C. Wang, W. Wang, A. G. MacDiarmid, “Conformational effects on optical charge transfer in the emeraldine base form of polyaniline from electroabsorption measurements and semi-empirical calculations”, J. Chem. Phys., Vol. 115, 2001, pp. 4359-4366.
41. S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, W. Werncke, J. Dreyer, A. I. Vodchits, K.-W. Brzezinka, “Ultrafast intramolecular electron transfer studied by stationary vibrational and time-resolved resonance Raman spectroscopy combined with ab initio calculations”, Recent Res. Devel. Chem. Physics, Vol. 2, 2001, pp. 83-106.
42. S. Hogiu, J. Dreyer, M. Pfeiffer, K.-W. Brzezinka, W. Werncke, “Vibrational analysis and excited-state geometric changes of betaine-30 derived from Raman and infrared spectra combined with ab initio calculations”, J. Raman Spectrosc., Vol. 31, Issue 8/9, 2000, pp. 797-803.
43. S. Hogiu, W. Werncke, M. Pfeiffer, J. Dreyer, T. Elsaesser, “Mode-specific vibrational excitation and energy redistribution after ultrafast intramolecular electron transfer”, J. Chem. Phys., Vol. 113, Issue 4, 2000, pp. 1587-1594.
44. W. Werncke, S. Hogiu, M. Pfeiffer, A. Lau, A. Kummrow, “Strong S1-S2 vibronic coupling and enhanced third order hyperpolarizability in the first excited singlet state of diphenylhexatriene studied by time-resolved CARS”, J. Phys. Chem. A, Vol. 104, Issue 18, 2000, pp. 4211-4217.
45. S. Hogiu, W. Werncke, M. Pfeiffer, T. Elsaesser, “Mode specific vibrational kinetics after intramolecular electron transfer studied by anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy”, Chem. Phys. Lett., Vol. 312, Issue 5-6, Oct. 1999, pp. 407-414.
46. S. Hogiu, W. Werncke, M. Pfeiffer, A. Lau, “Evidence of strong vibronic coupling in the first excited singlet state of diphenylhexatriene by picosecond CARS spectroscopy”, Chem. Phys. Lett., Vol. 303, Issue 1-2, 2 April 1999, pp. 218-222.
47. Pfeiffer, W. Werncke, S. Hogiu, A. Kummrow, A. Lau, “Strong vibronic coupling in the first excited singlet state of diphenylhexatriene by an asymmetric low-frequency mode”, Chem. Phys. Lett., Vol. 295, Issue 1-2, 2 Oct. 1998, pp. 56-62.
48. S. Hogiu, W. Werncke, M. Pfeiffer, A. Lau, T. Steinke, “Picosecond time-resolved CARS spectroscopy of a mixed excited singlet state of diphenylhexatriene”, Chem. Phys. Lett., Vol. 287, Issue 1-2, 24 April 1998, pp. 8-16.
49. M.L. Pascu, B. Carstocea, G. Popescu, O. Gafencu, S. Apostol, N. Moise, M. Roman, S. Hogiu, “Imaging corneal cells using low power beams”, Lasers in Medical Science, Vol. 13, Issue 2, 1998, pp. 148-154.
50. S. Hogiu, M. Enescu, M.L. Pascu, “Dynamic and thermodynamic effects of glycerol on bovine serum albumin in aqueous solution: a tryptophan phosphorescence study”, J. of Photochem.Photobiol. B: Biology, Vol. 40, Issue 1, Aug. 1997, pp. 55-60.
51. S. Hogiu, M.L. Pascu, “Optical and spectral properties of chlorophyll”, Rom. Rep. Phys., Vol. 48, Issue 3-4, 1996, pp. 205-218.
52. S. Hogiu, M. Enescu, M.L.Pascu, “Effet du solvant sur la structure et la dynamique structurelle des albumines seriques releve par l’etude du declin de leur phosphorescence”, Rom. J. Biophys., Vol. 5, No. 4, 1995, pp. 295-299.
53. S. Hogiu, M.L. Pascu, L. Tugulea, “Etude de l’emission stimulee de la radiation optique par solution de chlorophylle a”, Rom. J. Biophys., Vol. 5, No. 4, 1995, 317-323.
54. K. Burton, J. Jeong, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, D. L. Farkas, “Spectral Optical Imaging in Biology and Medicine” Chapter in “Biomedical Optical Imaging”, published by Oxford University Press, Editors: J. Fujimoto and D. L. Farkas, December 2008, Chapter 2.
55. S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, D. L. Farkas, Chapter 19: “Nonlinear multi-spectral optical imaging microscopy: concepts, instrumentation and applications”, in “Handbook of Biological Nonlinear Optical Microscopy”, Oxford University Press, Editors: B. Masters and P. So, April 2008, Chapter 19.
56. S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, A. J. Annala, D. L. Farkas “Laser applications in biology and biotechnology” in “Handbook of laser technology and applications” published by Institute of Physics Publishing, C. E. Webb, J. D. C. Jones Editors, Dec. 2003, pp. 2123-2155.
57. D. J. Rativa, A. S. L. Gomes, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, D. L. Farkas, R. E. de Araujo, “Silver Nanoparticles in Nonlinear Microscopy”, SBMO/IEEE MTT-S International Microwave & Optoelectronics Conference (IMOC). 2007, 478-482.
58. Hwang J. Y., Moffat-Blue C., Equils O., Fujita M., Jeong J., Khazenon N. M., Lindsley E., Ljubimova J., Nowatzyk A. G., Farkas D. L., Wachsmann-Hogiu, S., “Multimode optical imaging of small animals: development and applications”, Proc. of SPIE, Vol. 6441, 2007, 644105-14.
59. S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, J. Hwang, E. Lindsley, D. L. Farkas, “Wide-field two-photon microscopy: features and advantages for biomedical applications”, Proc. of SPIE, Vol. 6441, 2007, 64411B1-8.
60. Ljubimova J. Y., Fujita M., Lee B.-S., Khazenzon N. M., Wachsmann-Hogiu S., Farkas D. L., Black K. L., and Holler E., “Nanoconjugates of Poly(malic acid) with Functional Modules for Drug Delivery”, Technical Proceedings of NSTI Nanotech 2006.
61. A. Chung, M. Gaon, J. Jeong, S. Karlan, E. Lindsley, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, T. Zhao, Y. Xiong, and D. L. Farkas, “Spectral imaging detects breast cancer in fresh unstained specimens”, Proc. SPIE, 6088, 2006, 608806-12.
62. S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, D. Krakow, V. Kirilova, D. H. Cohn, C. Bertolotto, D. Acuna, Q. Fang, N. Krivorov, and D. L. Farkas, “Multiphoton, confocal, and lifetime microscopy for molecular imaging in cartilage”, Proc SPIE (BIOS ’05 Photonics West), 5699, 2005, pp. 75-81.
63. S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, D. Krakow, E. T. Sebald, C. Bertolotto, D. Acuna, and D. L. Farkas, “Confocal and two-photon microscopy in cartilage – expression patterns of Filamin A and B”, Proc. SPIE (Bios’04 – Photonics West), 5322, 2004, pp. 140-145.
64. A. I. Vodchits, W. Werncke, S. Hogiu, V. A. Orlovich, “Stimulated Raman scattering in compressed gases by short laser pulses”, Proc. SPIE (Ultrafast Optics and Superstrong Laser Fields), 4352, 2001, pp. 52-58.
65. B. Carstocea, O. Gafencu, S. Apostol, M. Ionita, M. L. Pascu, N. Moise, G. Popescu, M. Roman, S. Hogiu, “Preliminary studies of rabbit corneal structure using laser beams”, Proc. SPIE (Lasers in Ophtalmology IV), 2930, 1996 pp. 50-57.
66. M. L. Pascu, N. Moise, S. Hogiu, “Laser-induced fluorescence studies on collagen, cholesterol, and chlorophyll a”, Proc. SPIE (Effects of Low-Power Light on Biological Sys.), 2630, 1996, pp.120-124.
67. S. Hogiu, M.L. Pascu, L. Tugulea, “Study of chlorophyll a (in vitro) fluorescence induced by nitrogen pulsed laser radiation”, Proc. SPIE (BIOS), 2461, 1995, pp. 344-346.
68. M. L. Pascu, N. Moise, S. Hogiu, “Laser induced fluorescence on collagen, cholesterol and chlorophyll a”, Proc. SPIE (BIOS), 2627, 1995, pp. 216-220.
NSF Center for Biophotonics, Science and Technology
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